Chinese sex n drinks

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This review systematically examines the empirical evidence regarding the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes among the Chinese population in mainland, China. This review suggests that alcohol use is associated with diverse sexual risk behaviors and outcomes across a variety of social groups in China, consistent with the evidence from the Western countries and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Alcohol use is an important but under-researched correlate of sexual risk behaviors and outcomes in China. This review indicates the importance of research assessing alcohol use among both genders and with standardized measures, and suggests the importance of integrating alcohol use control in sexual risk reduction and prevention efforts in China.

Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes are major public health concerns worldwide.

Chinese sex n drinks

ing respectively for 3. Additionally, the alcohol-sexual risk linkage deserves special attention in health promotion efforts because their co-occurrence in the Chinese sex n drinks physical location e. A of studies using experimental research methodologies had reported consistent causal relationships between alcohol use and sexual risk taking and sexual assault [ 12 ].

However, event-level studies reported inconsistent association between alcohol use and unprotected sex [ 13 Chinese sex n drinks, 14 ]. A global review of English articles published during —, including one study in China, reported a consistent association between problem drinking and STIs [ 10 ]. Because the local and national experiences, socio-cultural context, and alcohol control policies influence the impact of alcohol consumption on health risk [ 6 — 816 ], regional and country-specific investigation of this association is critical to better contextualize the alcohol-sexual risk linkage.

Despite considerable increases in alcohol-sexual risk research [ 17 ] in high-income countries, the knowledge base of this association remains limited in low- and middle-income countries [ 318 — 20 ], including China. Alcohol consumption has increased considerably in China in the past three decades, accompanying with rapid social changes, including a rapidly expanding economy, urbanization, industrialization, and globalization [ 21 — 23 ]. A study on a cluster sample of 24, respondents aged 15 or above in cities and rural areas in 5 provinces in reported 1-year drinking rates of Overall, the global burden of disease with regard to alcohol was considerable in China, as the second leading risk factor at 5.

In China, changing attitudes toward sex and sexual risk behaviors e. Compared with global trends, the ificant changes in sexual risk behaviors, especially increased commercial sex, low condom use, and early sexual initiation, in China imply increased vulnerability to an HIV epidemic [ 29 ]. Although injecting drug users and contaminated blood were the major sources of HIV transmission in the past, sexual transmission has rapidly increased and become the dominant source among the new infection cases since e.

The sharp increases in the prevalence of HIV infection and the proportion of sexual transmission indicate the need for effective prevention and intervention strategy [ 33 — 36 ]. Among emerging social factors facilitating the rapid and continued increase of sexual transmission in China, is the possible role of alcohol consumption. Sexual risk health outcomes related to alcohol use are relatively new in China and thus data regarding the magnitude and the nature of the association are not widely available to inform comprehensive public health policies and programs [ 37 ].

We deed this study to systematically review the literature on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes in China and summarize key components of the studies, including location, population, de, and measurement issues. We identify gaps in the existing literature, and suggest directions for future public health research and practices. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify articles meeting the following criteria: articles published Chinese sex n drinks English or Chinese-language journals from toand empirical articles that investigated the association between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes in mainland China.

Related articles among Chinese populations in Hong Kong and Taiwan were not included in this review because their social contexts and healthcare systems are different from those in mainland China. A total of 35 articles were initially retrieved from the databases. Seventeen of the articles were excluded because of lack of specifics regarding the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes. The reference lists of the remaining 18 articles and recent alcohol-related reviews [ 7 — 11 ] were then hand-searched to identify other possible articles, but no additional studies were found.

The 18 articles in our review, included seven five quantitative and two qualitative in Chinese and eleven nine quantitative and two qualitative in English. All quantitative studies were presented in Table 1 by sample, study de, measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes, and main findings. Summary of 14 quantitative studies on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes in China, — Four quantitative studies [ 39 — 42 ] and four qualitative studies [ 43 — 46 ] investigated the association between alcohol use and several sexual risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, premarital sex, multiple sexual partners, commercial sex, sex under influence of substance, among drug users, migrants, female sex workers FSWs and their male clients, and men having sex with men MSM.

Two quantitative studies among drug users reported positive associations with relatively large odds ratios OR 2. Lau et al. Among 1, men aged 18—30 having used substances in mainland China, Among those using substance exclusively in mainland China, alcohol consumption was ificantly associated with sexual activities e. A quantitative study among 2, sexually experienced migrants in Beijing and Nanjing reported positive associations with a medium odds ratios 1.

About Migrants with recent experiences of intoxication during the month were more likely to engage in premarital sex OR, 1. One quantitative study and one qualitative study examined alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among MSM. Jiang et al. Among MSM, Compared with nondrinkers or lighter drinkers, these drinkers were more likely to experience unprotected anal intercourse OR, 2.

A qualitative study among focus groups of 15 migrant money boys, defined as male migrants who sold sex to men, and 15 general male migrants in Shanghai reported that migrant money boys drank less alcohol than those of general migrant men, although money boys were more likely to use drugs to enhance sexual drive [ 44 ]. Three qualitative studies reported impacts of alcohol consumption on sexual risk behaviors among FSWs and male clients in China.

Choi and Holroyd [ 43 ] conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 FSWs in a city in southwestern China. Guo et al. They reported that drinking before having sex with FSWs was common among male clients; and inebriation was a reason for not using condoms. Zuo et al. They found that encounters with FSWs were related to drinking in entertainment places. Five quantitative studies investigated the association between alcohol use, sexual coercion, and violence among diverse populations, including the general population, women seeking an abortion, FSWs, and students [ 47 — 51 ].

Two quantitative studies conducted among the general population reported positive associations between alcohol use and intimate partner violence IPV with odd ratios of 1. Sexual violence was the most prevalent form of IPV. According to the study, among those women with abuse experience, In a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20—64, Parish et al.

A female drinker was more likely to hit OR, 2. Quantitative studies among women seeking an abortion and FSWs reported positive associations between alcohol use and sexual coercion. Alcohol abuse prior to sexual intercourse was more likely to be associated with sexual coercion 17 vs. Among establishment-based FSWs in a rural county, FSWs experienced sex coercion were more likely to report drinking alcohol before having sex with their clients In a cross-sectional study of 3, college students recruited from two universities using stratified clustered sampling in one province [ 51 ], alcohol use was defined as at least one time use of alcohol 25 g liquor, ml wine, or ml beer per month.

Alcohol users were more likely to become victims OR, 2. Blood assay test was used to diagnose HIV and syphilis. Syphilis infection was associated with drinking alcohol more than weekly in the past 3 months OR, 1. Zhang [ 53 ] conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 16, women aged 25—75, who attended a cervical cancer screening program between and Compared with abstainers, drinkers had an increased relative risk RR for trichomonas vaginalis RR, 1.

Compared with abstainers, women who had 1—9 drinks per week experienced the increased relative risk of an incident trichomonas infection RR, 1. However, women who drank 10 or more per week were less likely to experience an incident trichomonas infection RR, 0. Three quantitative hospital-based case—control studies among STI patients reported positive associations between alcohol use and STIs.

Wang and Zhang [ 54 ] conducted a study in Huaibei, Anhui Province. Among cases, Among controls, Ou Yang et al. Zhang et al. Women with an alcohol abusing partner were more likely to have trichomonal vaginitis OR, 2. The association between alcohol use and unprotected sex were inconsistent. Possible explanations for these inconsistent associations include global rather than event-level Chinese sex n drinks [ 41 ], and the difficulty in disentangling the potential association between drugs and unprotected sex versus alcohol and unprotected sex.

Two studies reported gender difference in the effect sizes of the association between alcohol use and partner violence [ 4748 ], suggesting a potential moderation effect of gender. Taken together, these suggest that alcohol use is associated with increased and diverse sexual risk across a variety of social groups in China.

Chinese sex n drinks

The findings are consistent with the empirical evidence from Western countries and Sub-Saharan Africa [ 41015 ]. This review suggests that alcohol use is an important but under-researched correlate of sexual risk behavior and outcomes in China. Over the past three decades, we were only able to identify 18 articles, concentrated in the s and in large cities in coastal areas in China.

These existing studies are limited in and scope in relation to the measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors and outcomes in China. For example, we did not identify any study on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk in Yunnan Province, one of the major epicenters of the HIV epidemic in China [ 5758 ].

Despite that unwanted pregnancy has been one of the commonly investigated sexual risk among students and young adults in developed countries [ 7 ], no study investigated it as an alcohol-related sexual risk in China, except that abortion seekers were the sample in one study Chinese sex n drinks this review [ 49 ]. Our review only identified one intervention study with alcohol use as a secondary outcome of sexual risk reduction [ 56 ], indicating a lack of intervention approach integrating alcohol use into sexual risk reduction in China.

Future investigations, both observational and interventional, are needed in diverse geographic locations, subpopulations, multiple outcomes to assess the alcohol-sexual risk linkage.

Chinese sex n drinks

This review reveals several limitations in study de in the existing literature.

Chinese sex n drinks

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